Core elements: suitable growing medium, appropriate stabilisation, site applicability, ground preparation, logistic access, mulching. Soft landscaping: Agapanthus, Agave, Astelia, Bamboo, Birch, Eucalyptus, Ferns, Grasses, Olive, Magnolia, Palms, Phormium, Pine, Yucca. Central ideas: architectural outlines, sculptural foliage, clear definition and distinct contrast. Design essentials: underplanting and ground cover accentuation, glossy, variegated foliage balanced with deciduous forms, bark patterns, contrastive scale, complementary lighting.
Core elements: ample ground cover with en masse and integrated monoculture, moisture conservation, unfussy resilient floras, slow-growing species, well-selected, well-matched and well-sited plants. Soft landscaping: Acorus, Beschorneria, Buxus, Carex, Cercis, Cornus, Cotoneaster, Dicksonia, Ginkgo, Libertia, Pittosporum, Pseudopanax, Trochodendron. Central ideas: hedge designs, simplified layouts, self-supporting attributes, robust hybrid cultivars, long-lived species. Design essentials: effortlessly prunable, accessible blueprints, well-irrigated infrastructure, site-oriented design selections.
Core elements: microclimatic appropriateness, cultural relevance, architectural references. Soft landscaping: sustained methodology fusing an intuitive horticultural approach, hands-on experimentation and consistent specification in astutely utilising acid-loving, drought-tolerant, pollution-tolerant, shade-loving, sun-tolerant, wind-resistant and winter-hardy plant varieties in ideal environments. Central ideas: focal points, borrowed landscape, framed vistas, light reflection, well-balanced scale. Design essentials: contrast, form, intrigue, rhythm, scent, tactility, texture, shadows and light interplay.
Core elements: habitat creation, native species integration, flexible maintenance strategies, copious shelter, diverse plant species. Soft landscaping: Alder, Dogwood, Elder, Field maple, Spindle, Hawthorn, Hazel, Holly, Rowan, Willow. Central ideas: valuable symmetry between a wildlife friendly mindset, ecological necessity and planting design naturality, alongside a contemporary, architectural framework. Design essentials: nectar-rich floras, broad-canopied treetops, berried woody plants, extended flowering seasons, edible gardens, flower meadows, natural water sources, hedging structures and nesting resources.
Core elements: foliage, inflorescence, stem, bark and trunk variation, seasonal interlayers, distinct flora and broad habitat associations. Soft landscaping: varied planting mediums for optimal display, water management for oxygenating plants, elevated planting beds, drainage amelioration and soil conditioning to enable sufficiently cultivable settings. Central ideas: level changes and topographic maximisation, contrasting planting zones which vary in upkeep frequency. Design essentials: plant outline multilayering, shifting compositional clusters, multiform structural backdrops to provide further scope, augment, protect and highlight vegetal diversification.
Core elements: consistent maintenance, soil erosion management, overplanting vs. sparse layouts to ensure successful acclimatisation and long-lasting schemes. Soft landscaping: adequate growing space, efficient spacing, tweaking undergrowth density, effective monitoring of self-seeding species. Central ideas: establishing dynamic micro-ecosystems, associative plant networks, well-suited flora growth rate. Design essentials: companion planting associations, deciduous and evergreen harmonious proportionality, clustered symbiotic parity.
Core elements: seasonal transition, deciduousness, biodiversity, foliar movement. Soft landscaping: natural forms emphasis, accent plants, grassy textures, naturalistic drifts. Central ideas: verdant leafiness infused with multicoloured nuances, producing a revitalising synthesis of silhouetted planting compositions, pure asymmetry and informality. Design essentials: tangible, multi-sensory landscape expressions of well-integrated, greenable outdoor areas with foliage groupings, in celebrating growth, renewal and decay of organic plant life.
Core elements: workable, cultivatable, gardenable and fitly plantable frameworks, introduction of apt species. Soft landscaping: skilful soil aeration, liberal surface mulching, accurate plant nutrition, wise weed control. Central ideas: balanced planting plans in ratio of large-scale, mature specimens to small-sized plants. Design essentials: selective itinerary mixing pot grown, bare root, field grown, semi-hardy, as well as tender plants, with a sound proportion of exotic to native species.
Core elements: planned and impromptu layering of horticultural continuity and seasonal interest among structural permanence and recurring focal points. Soft landscaping: Achillea, Allium, Angelica, Buddleja, Campanula, Digitalis, Echinacea, Hemerocallis, Hosta, Iris, Lavandula, Lavatera, Ligularia, Papaver, Penstemon, Primula, Salvia, Sedum, Thymus. Central ideas: well-expressed, scalable narratives of seasonal cycles, edibility, piquancy, wildlife significance, educational and continual outdoor social activities. Design essentials: cyclicality, perceptibility, perenniality and sheer open-airness, celebrated in the re-emergence of fresh leaflets, stalks and petals in a continuous transformation of a garden's soft landscape.
Core elements: allocation of resources to collection of common, rare and endangered plant species, botanical research, expert propagation, glasshouse cultivation, extensive education and habitat renewal. Soft landscaping: passionate protection of native flora and fauna in wide-ranging conservation practices. Central ideas: creation of private and botanical gardens, preservation of rural landscapes and vital national parks to mitigate deforestation and habitat loss, when nearly half the species of Cacti, Cycads and Orchids are critically endangered. Design essentials: integration of worldwide flora, distinctive habitats and clear cultural nuances in a forward-looking, environmentally aware mindset, within the universal art of gardens and ecological science.